Net Profit Ratio (NP Ratio):

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Definition of net profit ratio:

Net profit ratio is the ratio of net profit (after taxes) to net sales. It is expressed aspercentage.

Components of net profit ratio:

The two basic components of the net profit ratio are the net profit and sales. The net profits are obtained after deducting income-tax and, generally, non-operating expenses and incomes are excluded from the net profits for calculating this ratio. Thus, incomes such as interest on investments outside the business, profit on sales of fixed assets and losses on sales of fixed assets, etc are excluded.

Formula:

Net Profit Ratio = (Net profit / Net sales) × 100

Example:

Total sales = $520,000; Sales returns = $ 20,000;  Net profit $40,000

Calculate net profit ratio.

Calculation:

Net sales = (520,000 – 20,000) = 500,000

Net Profit Ratio = [(40,000 / 500,000) × 100]

= 8%

Significance:

NP ratio is used to measure the overall profitability and hence it is very useful to proprietors. The ratio is very useful as if the net profit is not sufficient, the firm shall not be able to achieve a satisfactory return on its investment.

This ratio also indicates the firm’s capacity to face adverse economic conditions such as price competition, low demand, etc. Obviously, higher the ratio the better is the profitability. But while interpreting the ratio it should be kept in mind that the performance of profits also be seen in relation to investments or capital of the firm and not only in relation to sales.

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